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加拿大移民門檻越來越高經濟類移民占一半以上
2020-01-11 18:15   来源:  www.fulixx.cn   评论:0 点击:

加拿大移民門檻越來越高經濟類移民占一半以上加拿大是个主要由移民构成的年轻国家,移民促进了加拿大人口增

  加拿大是个主要由移民构成的年轻国家,移民促进了加拿大人口增加。根据加拿大统计局(StatisticsCanada)发布的报告,加拿大的人口增长率是G7国家中最高的,2017~2018年的人口年增长率为%,是美国增长率的两倍,远远超过英国、法国和德国的认可增长率。

Canada is a young country mainly composed of immigrants, who have contributed to the increase in its population. According to the Statistics Canada report, Canada's population growth rate is the highest among G7 countries, with an annual population growth rate of% in 2017-2018, twice the US growth rate, far surpassing the UK, France and Germany's approved growth rate.

  与G7中其他国家相比,加拿大的人口增长主要来自国际移民。目前加拿大仍然处于从接收移民中得到人口红利阶段,2018年联邦政府决定接受移民人数为31万人,而2019年为万人,2020年则为万人。

Compared with other countries in the G7, Canada's population growth mainly comes from international immigrants. Canada is still in the demographic dividend phase from receiving immigrants, with the federal government deciding to accept 310,000 migrants in 2018, compared to 10,000 in 2019 and 10,000 in 2020.

  加拿大联邦政府移民、难民及公民部(Immigration,RefugeesandCitizenshipCanada)公布的报告显示,在2018年接收的新移民以经济类移民配额为主,约占%。经济类移民主要包括以下类别:联邦高技术类移民(FederalHighSkilled),大西洋移民试点计划(AtlanticImmigrationPilotProgram),联邦护理类移民(Caregivers),联邦商业类移民(FederalBusiness),省提名项目(ProvincialNomineeProgram),魁北克省技术和商业移民(QuebecSkilledWorkersandBusiness)等。

According to a report by canada's federal immigration, refugee and citizenship department (Immigration,RefugeesandCitizenshipCanada), new immigrants received in 2018 were mainly economic immigrants, or about%. Economic migrants include the following categories: federal high-tech immigrants, the atlantic immigration pilot scheme (AtlanticImmigrationPilotProgram), federal care immigrants (caring), federal business immigrants (federal business), the provincial nomination program (provincial nominee program), and technical and commercial immigrants (QuebecSkilledWorkersandBusiness) in quebec.

  首先是人口老龄化加速。2018年加拿大移民年度报告(2018AnnualReporttoParliamentonImmigration)显示,2012年加国工作人员与退休人员的比例为比1,但到2036年,预测将该比率设为2比1。截至2018年7月1日,加拿大每100名0至14岁儿童中,就有106名65岁及以上的成年人。相比之下,在1986年,0至14岁儿童的人数是65岁及以上的两倍。

The first is the acceleration of population ageing. Canada's annual report on immigration for 2018(2018AnnualReporttoParliamentonImmigration) shows that the ratio of staff to retirees was 1 in 2012, but by 2036 it is projected to be 2 to 1. As of July 1,2018, Canada had 106 adults aged 65 and over for every 100 children aged 0 to 14. In contrast, in 1986, the number of children aged 0 to 14 was twice that of children aged 65 and over.

  其次是加拿大发展经济,急需各类年富力强的人才。移民的加入,恰好满足了劳力市场的需求。通过各省提名计划的移民对一些特别地区的劳力需求起到缓解作用。移民来到加拿大,进入劳力市场后开始赋税。他们要买房、出行和消费,这都带动了加拿大经济的发展。在过去20年中,加拿大人均GDP,生产率和劳动力每年都增加约%。

The second is Canada's economic development, the urgent need for a variety of young talent. The entry of immigrants just meets the needs of the labour market. Migrants through provincial nomination schemes have a moderating effect on labour demand in some special areas. Immigrants came to Canada, entered the labour market and began to pay taxes. They want to buy a house, travel and consume, which has led to the development of the Canadian economy. In the past 20 years, Canada's per capita GDP, productivity and labor have increased by about% every year.

  2017年,移民主申请人从事的前五大职业分别是:信息系统分析和咨询师、软件工程师、计算机程序员和互动媒体开发者、财务审计师和会计师和行政助理。据预测,加拿大现在和未来都会在卫生、科学、技术行业、运输和设备方面劳动力短缺。移民的加入,恰好满足了劳动力市场的需求。通过省提名计划的移民对一些特别地区的劳动力需求起到缓解作用。

In 2017, the top five professions for immigrant applicants were: information systems analysis and consultants, software engineers, computer programmers and interactive media developers, financial auditors and accountants and administrative assistants. Canada is projected to have and will have labour shortages in health, science, technology, transport and equipment. The entry of immigrants just meets the needs of the labour market. Migrants through the provincial nomination scheme have helped to alleviate labour demand in some special areas.

  第三,加拿大是个提倡多元文化国家,欢迎来自世界各地的移民。2017年加拿大共从185个原籍国接收了移民。移民人数最多的国家是印度,菲律宾其次,中国位于第三名。由于语言等问题,中国登陆移民所占的比例已经明显减少。例如2012年和2013年,中国人移民加拿大人数名列第一,但2014年到2017年,一直处于第三和第四位。

Third, Canada is a multicultural country that welcomes immigrants from around the world. In 2017, Canada received immigrants from 185 countries of origin. The country with the largest number of immigrants is India, followed by the Philippines, where China ranks third. As a result of language and other problems, the proportion of immigrants landing in China has been significantly reduced. For example, in 2012 and 2013, the number of Chinese immigrants to Canada ranked first, but from 2014 to 2017, has been in the third and fourth place.

  最后,大量新移民涌入会带动加拿大各行各业发展,房地产、汽车、餐饮、旅游等行业均受惠。近几年,投资者来加拿大购房方兴未艾,而中国投资者最感兴趣的城市是多伦多,其次是蒙特利尔、温哥华、渥太华和卡尔加里。不过去年中国外汇管制政策出台后,中国人购房能力有所下降。

Finally, the influx of new immigrants will lead to the development of various industries in Canada, including real estate, automobile, catering and tourism. In recent years, investors have come to canada to buy, while chinese investors are most interested in toronto, followed by montreal, vancouver, ottawa and calgary. However, last year's foreign exchange control policy, the ability of the Chinese to buy a house declined.

  广东外语外贸大学加拿大研究中心兼职研究员贾葆蘅指出,2018年,加拿大所需移民人数稳步增加,但是移民门槛部越来越高。其表现有三:一是联邦政府提高移民申请条件;二是对于新实施的移民政策,在试点阶段相对宽松。但随着政策逐步实施,正在慢慢收紧;三是与联邦政府相比,各省的提名计划更加严格。有些省份要求申请者必须表明在提名后继续居住在所申请省份,例如马尼托巴省,不光要求提交就业计划,以展示在马尼托巴省成功的职业发展轨道,还要求证明留在该省发展。

Jia Baoheng, a part-time researcher at the Canada Research Center of Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, points out that the number of immigrants needed in Canada has steadily increased in 2018, but the immigration threshold is getting higher and higher. Its performance is three: first, the federal government improves the conditions for immigration applications; and second, the new immigration policy is relatively loose in the pilot phase. But as the policy is gradually implemented, it is slowly tightening; third, the provincial nomination plan is more stringent than the federal government. Some provinces require applicants to indicate that they continue to reside in the requested province after nomination, such as Manitoba, not only to submit employment plans to demonstrate a successful career track in Manitoba, but also to demonstrate that they remain in the province.

  分析认为,加拿大移民政策的调整,既是因为人口老龄化加速,又是出于经济发展、人道主义、社会舆论等多方面考量。此外,因为移民筛选条例的不够完善也促使一些移民政策加以局部修正。

According to the analysis, the adjustment of Canada's immigration policy is not only due to the accelerated aging of the population, but also due to economic development, humanitarian, public opinion and other considerations. Moreover, inadequate immigration screening regulations have led to partial amendments to some immigration policies.


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