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戈恩的落馬與御風日本公司治理史上的一道傷疤
2020-01-11 18:15   来源:  www.fulixx.cn   评论:0 点击:

戈恩的落馬與御風日本公司治理史上的一道傷疤缪因知文2019年12月30日,曾经身兼雷诺-日产-三菱三大产业公司

缪因知/文2019年12月30日,曾经身兼雷诺-日产-三菱三大产业公司最高管理者的卡洛斯-戈恩(Ghosn)夜搭飞机,御风出逃日本的故事,注定将会成为一部电影的素材。伪装的乐队、干练的特种兵到底扮演了何等角色,拨弄着人们的好奇心。

On december 30,2019, carlos gosn, who once served as the top executive of the three major industrial companies, renault-nissan-mitsubishi, flew overnight, doomed the story of the flight from japan to become a movie fodder. What a role the disguised band, the competent special forces played, playing with curiosity.

但从“经济观察”的角度看,戈恩命运起伏的背后,国际化背景下的日本公司治理同样令人感慨。北京时间1月8日晚戈恩召开3小时记者会,全面为自身洗白并痛斥日本政商两界,更令日本陷入被动。

But from the point of view of \"economic observation \", behind the ups and downs of Ghosn's fate, the internationalization of the background of Japanese corporate governance is equally emotional. Mr Ghosn held a three-hour press conference on the evening of January 8, Beijing time, fully washing his own whites and lambasting Japan's political and business sectors, making Japan even more passive.

第二次世界大战后,在美军占领的刺刀之下的日本,凭借制造业重新崛起,一度获得“日本第一”(出自哈佛大学教授傅高义的同名著作)的光环,汽车业可谓其中的翘楚之一。

After the second world war, japan, under the bayonets of the u.s. military occupation, was one of the best in the auto industry, once gaining the ring of \"japan first \"(from the eponymous work of harvard professor fu gaoyi), thanks to the resurgence of manufacturing.

日元极度升值的泡沫破灭后,金融业虽然令人沮丧,但汽车业仍然保持了强劲。在地缘政治摩擦加剧时,日系车依旧可以作为日本国家的象征,在别国遭到愤怒人群的抵制。

After the bursting of the yen's extremely appreciating bubble, the industry remained strong, albeit frustratingly. At a time of heightened geopolitical friction, japanese cars can still serve as a symbol of japan's state and are resisted by angry crowds elsewhere.

不过,商路漫漫,总有落伍者。成立于1933年、位列三大汽车制造商的日产(NISSAN)汽车,就是曾经濒临死亡的一员。

But there's a long way to go. Nissan, which was founded in 1933 as one of the top three carmakers, was one of those who was on the verge of death.

戈恩与日产的结缘,亦源于这样的不平等地位。1999年日产汽车负债21000亿日元,面临破产。法国雷诺汽车将其收购,并由副总裁戈恩亲自操刀改组,担任日产的首席执行官(CE0)。

Mr Ghosn's bond with Nissan also stems from such unequal status. In 1999, Nissan was in debt of Y210 billion and faced bankruptcy. Renault, France, bought it, and the vice president, Mr Ghosn, personally reorganised himself as Nissan's chief executive (CE0).

不到两年后,日产已扭亏为盈,并成为全球获利最高的汽车生产商。后来,戈恩又担任了雷诺的首席执行官和三菱汽车的董事长。

Less than two years later, Nissan has turned a profit and become the world's most profitable carmaker. Mr Ghosn later served as chief executive of Renault and chairman of Mitsubishi Motors.

毕竟,戈恩只是管理者,他的空降带来的主要武器,不是令公司研发迭代的技术诀窍,而是作为外人无牵无挂削减冗余人员和部门的管理铁腕。

After all, mr gorn is simply a manager, and the main weapon brought by his parachute is not the technical know-how that makes the company's iterations, but rather an outsider who cuts redundancies and manages departments with an iron fist.

作为金主的主银行,平常不对公司治理进行干预,高度维护公司的自治权,并对雇员广泛实施终身雇佣的保障。然而,随着日本在1990年代出现严重的银行坏账问题,银行的治理光环早已破灭。

As the main bank of gold owners, usually do not intervene in corporate governance, highly defend the autonomy of the company, and widely implement the protection of lifelong employment for employees. However, with Japan experiencing a serious bank bad debt problem in the 1990s, the bank's governance aura has long been dashed.

公司融资和治理体制已然发生诸多明显变化,包括减少对银行贷款的依赖,增加股权融资包括外国投资者的股权融资,修改商法,增强对管理层监管、允许公选择英美风格的以董事会及其下属委员会为核心的治理结构,并在每个委员会中设置非执行董事,减少常规的全职雇员,更多引入业绩工资。

The corporate finance and governance system has undergone many notable changes, including reduced reliance on bank loans, increased equity financing, including foreign investors'equity financing, changes to commercial law, enhanced governance structures that govern management, allow the selection of Anglo-American-style boards and their sub-committees, and the creation of non-executive directors in each committee to reduce regular full-time employees and introduce more performance pay.

戈恩的入驻和大刀阔斧,正是在这样的制度大转型之下发生的。往昔好时代的落幕和洋人掌权后的残酷,交织了纵向和横向的冲击线,不能不令樱花落瓣下的忧郁族群心起秋悲。

Mr Ghosn's presence and boldness came under such a great institutional transformation. The ending of the past good times and the cruelty after the foreigners came to power, intertwined vertical and horizontal impact line, cannot help but make the heart of the melancholy group under the cherry blossom fall.

须知,日本虽然名列西方七国集团,物质生产高度发达,但与欧美终究不同。整个社会其实还有诸多传统与保守之处。时至今日,尽管面临着人口萎缩,日本对外国移民的限制态度之严依旧在世界上名列前茅。

It should be noted that although Japan ranks among the Western Group of Seven countries, the material production is highly developed, but it is different from Europe and the United States after all. There are many traditions and traditions in society as a whole. Today, despite the shrinking population, Japan's restrictive attitude towards foreign immigrants is among the highest in the world.

雷诺与日产的联姻,在中国人看来或许只是一个西方世界内部的故事,但对日本汽车界的冲击,则仍然可以比拟1853年美国军舰叩关、“黑船来航”的事件。

Renault's tie-up with nissan may seem to the chinese to be a story within the western world, but the impact on japan's auto industry is still comparable to the u.s. naval knocks and \"black ships\" in 1853.

戈恩作为“新君王”暴风雨般无所顾忌的行事风格,尽管有利于公司收入支出的乾坤挪移,但既然冲击了原有的公司社群观念,又时时以高出日本同事的薪酬待遇、奢华宴会刺激人心,有麦帅之武,但终究无麦帅之威,又驻留年久,其结局翻转多少也不足为奇了。

Mr Ghosn's stormy no-holds-barred style as a \"new king \"has helped the company's income and expenditure to shift, but it is no surprise that the company's outcome has somewhat reversed, since it has hit the old corporate community, and has always been more than the pay and luxury of its Japanese colleagues.

2018年,日本检察厅对戈恩提起的罪名指控包括漏报收入、利用公司资金为自己购买豪宅和证券等。外人固然尚无信息对此多加评判。

In 2018, the Japanese prosecutor's office filed charges against Mr. Ghosn, including failing to report income, using company funds to buy homes and securities for themselves. Outsiders don't have information to judge.

但这些行为不是那么“硬核”的违法犯罪行为,戈恩在记者会上也给出了不同的解释,如瞒报收入的指控涉及汇率计算的不同,CEO准备金的使用需要多人签字,相关房产属日产所有。

However, these actions are not so \"hard core\" crimes, mr gorn also gave different explanations at the press conference, such as allegations of revenue fraud involving different exchange rate calculations, the use of ceo reserves need to be signed, the property is owned by nissan.

平心而论,对戈恩这样在公司内的权力实际上无限制、薪酬待遇也可以无法定上限的“超级一把手”而言,要把这些待遇合法化,本非难事,无需冒着巨大的法律风险来获取。

To be sure, it is not difficult for a \"super-head \"who has virtually unlimited power within the company and cannot be able to cap pay, to legalize such treatment, without taking huge legal risks.

事实上,无论在欧美还是中国,皆罕见以这等罪名来对付顶级管理者。很难不让人怀疑公诉方是否打破商事惯例与默契,在法律的模糊地带做了不利于被告的弹性解释。

In fact, in Europe, America and China, such crimes are rare to deal with top managers. It is hard not to doubt whether the prosecution broke the commercial practice and tacit understanding, and made a flexible explanation against the defendant in the vague area of the law.

与西方国家不同,日本的刑事诉讼定罪率可以高达99%。因为检察官若觉得无高度把握,会宁可撤诉,也不败诉,以免入选耻辱的1%。

Unlike in the West, Japan's criminal conviction rate can be as high as 99%. Because if the prosecutor felt that the high degree of assurance, would rather withdraw the lawsuit, not lose, so as not to be included in the shame of 1%.

而对戈恩这样的高光案件而言,撤诉的回响绝不对低于败诉,一经启动就只有向前。法官的地位尽管有保障,也不能不顾及判决结果对法律同侪的杀伤力。

For high-light cases like Mr Ghosn's, the echo of the withdrawal is no less than losing, and once activated, it is only moving forward. The judge's status, while assured, cannot fail to take into account the lethality of the judgement to his legal peers.

若再被添加国家民族的象征色彩,其中的沉重感更是无人可御。以致于戈恩声称,自己的律师都不能给出会“公正审理”的安慰承诺,令他不能相信日本司法体制的重要理由。

If be added the symbol color of national nation again, the heavy feeling that among them is no one can resist. So much so that mr gorn's claim that his lawyers cannot give a \"fair trial\" of comfort, so that he cannot believe the important reasons for japan's judicial system.

而戈恩出逃后,尽管日本政府已经于1月2日求助于国际刑警组织,但他若不踏足与日本有引渡协议的国家,就可终身无虞。这意味着他和日产公司的公司治理纠纷将永无司法定论之日,而裂痕也将因此长久存在。

Although the japanese government turned to the international police on january 2nd after mr gorn fled, he would be safe for life without stepping into a country with an extradition agreement. That means his corporate-governance dispute with nissan will never be conclusive, and the rift will last.

无论如何,日产公司是其中最大的输家。除非能证明戈恩是以非常隐蔽和技巧性的方式实施了相关被指控行为,否则即便他确实从事挪用资金等行为,也同样会说明日产公司治理体系的重大缺漏。

In any case, nissan is the biggest loser. Unless it can be proved that mr gorn has committed the alleged acts in a very covert and skilful manner, even if he does commit acts such as misappropriating money, it will also illustrate the major gaps in nissan's corporate governance system.

反过来,倘若戈恩版本的叙说(包括他必然会撰写的回忆录)赢得了更多信任,那日产公司“忘恩负义”的形象乃至整个日本公司界“不靠谱”的名声,也会在西方和非西方世界深入人心。

In turn, if mr gorn's narrative (including his inevitable memoirs) garners more trust, nissan's image as \"ungrateful\" and, indeed, its reputation as \"unreliable\" in japan's corporate world as a whole will be in the western and non-western world.

“当代艾柯卡”戈恩的日产故事的传奇性,已经超越了那位从福特流落到克莱斯勒的前辈,其一生的事迹不仅会在汽车业,也会在整个国际商界回荡,注定不利于日本。

The legendary nature of the nissan saga of \"contemporary akoka\" gorn has transcended the legacy of the ford-turned-chrysler, whose lifelong legacy will reverberate not only in the auto industry but in the international business world as a whole, doomed to the detriment of japan.

即便黎巴嫩人下手曾令万骨枯,但毕竟是日产自愿引入了戈恩,其确实挽救了日产,称不上是引狼入室或欺世盗名。

Even if the lebanese had killed their bones, it was nissan who voluntarily brought in mr gorn, and it did save nissan, which wasn't called a wolf-in or a thief.

要指责戈恩在扶桑忘了初心、腐化堕落、包括走上了自己批判过的产业扩张道路,那日本的公司治理体系仍然甩不脱“管不住人”的锅。

To accuse mr ghosn of forgetting the beginnings and corruption, including embarking on the path of industrial expansion that he has criticized, japan's corporate governance system remains \"out of control \".

无论是戈恩倒台的原因还是结果,日产在这两年严重的亏损和“三头联盟”的解体亦是事实,败军之将,不可以言勇。

Whether it's the cause or the result of Mr Ghosn's fall, Nissan's heavy losses in the past two years and the collapse of the \"three-pronged alliance\" are also true, and the losers cannot be brave.

除了明确揭发日产的6名高管外,戈恩在8日召开的记者招待会,还不点名地抨击了丰田公司和日本政府的要员。若要讲整个日本政商精英不能跟人好离好散,非要下重手往死里整人的话,简直有辱老牌资本主义国家的形象。

In addition to explicitly exposing six of nissan's executives, mr. gorn's press conference on the 8th didn't name toyota and japanese government officials. To say that the entire Japanese political and business elite cannot be separated from each other, must be heavy-handed to the death of the whole, it would be humiliating image of old capitalist countries.

本来有罪的司法判决尚能成为最后的遮羞布,而戈恩金蝉脱壳后,一年多来早已失了舆论先机的日本之后手可谓丧失殆尽。

A guilty judicial sentence could be the last fig leaf, and after mr ghosn's shell, japan, which had already lost its public opinion for more than a year, lost its hands.

2011年,奥林巴斯外籍CEO迈克尔·伍德福德(MichaelWoodford),因公开质疑公司的财务有欺诈嫌疑而被解职,他在英国法院起诉奥林巴斯非法解雇和歧视他的外籍身份。

In 2011, Olympus Foreign CEO Michael Woodford, dismissed for publicly questioning the company's financial fraud suspicions, sued Olympus in a British court for unlawful dismissal and discrimination against his foreign identity.

如今,戈恩要起诉日产并无太大难处。而日方由于已启动刑事程序,显然缺乏民事和解的空间,后续颇为难办,除非曾经协同其办案的美国和法国执法机构能有新突破。

Today, Mr Ghosn's case against Nissan is not that difficult. Japan's apparent lack of room for a civil settlement because it has initiated criminal proceedings will be difficult to follow unless the u.s. and french law enforcement agencies that have worked with it have made a breakthrough.

但在经济面临更多全球性的压力、挑战与机遇之际,对日本哀之和鉴之,思考我们的支柱企业如何有效面对外国公司的收购和管理,并且与之共生共赢,总不为无益。

But at a time when the economy is facing more global pressures, challenges, and opportunities, it is no good to learn from Japan's woes and to think about how our pillar companies can effectively face the acquisition and management of foreign companies and win with them.


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